‘Angry Penguins’ was a modernist literary and artistic movement in Australia during the 1940s, aiming to challenge cultural norms.
‘Angry Penguins’ was an art and literary journal established in 1940 by surrealist poet Max Harris when he was just 18 years old. Initially located in Adelaide, the journal relocated to Melbourne in 1942 after Harris joined the Heide Circle. The Heide Circle was a collective of avant-garde painters and writers associated with Heide, a property owned by art patrons John and Sunday Reed.
Over time, ‘Angry Penguins’ became closely linked to, and played a role in nurturing, an art movement that later adopted the same name. Prominent figures within this movement included Sidney Nolan, Arthur Boyd, Joy Hester, Gray Smith, and Albert Tucker.